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An atypical outbreak of monkeypox was identified in the WHO European Region in May 2022, and on 23 July 2022, the Director General of WHO, Dr. Tedros Ghebreysus, declared the rapid spread of the disease in non-endemic countries to be a public health emergency of international concern.

Reducing the onward spread of monkeypox requires a tailored approach based on an understanding of the behaviours and contexts of the affected communities as well as health workers who play a central role in the response. Behavioural and cultural insights can help promote a people-centred process where monkeypox-related policies, services and communication are shaped by and respond to the needs, perspectives and conditions of priority groups, health workers and others involved and affected.